[PDF] Download ↠ Naar de eeuwige vrede | by ↠ Immanuel Kant Thomas Mertens Edwin van Elden


  • Title: Naar de eeuwige vrede
  • Author: Immanuel Kant Thomas Mertens Edwin van Elden
  • ISBN: 9789461050526
  • Page: 274
  • Format: Paperback

  • Naar de eeuwige vrede is de vertaling van het boek Zum ewigen Frieden van Kant, dat in 1795 verschijnt als de Franse Revolutie nog in volle gang is Daardoor wordt het een populair geschrift Ook de wereld na 11 september 2001 kan volgens talloze publicisten niet begrepen worden zonder verwijzing naar dit geschrift van Kant het speelt een prominente rol in discussies overNaar de eeuwige vrede is de vertaling van het boek Zum ewigen Frieden van Kant, dat in 1795 verschijnt als de Franse Revolutie nog in volle gang is Daardoor wordt het een populair geschrift Ook de wereld na 11 september 2001 kan volgens talloze publicisten niet begrepen worden zonder verwijzing naar dit geschrift van Kant het speelt een prominente rol in discussies over vraagstukken van oorlog en vrede, over de betekenis van de internationale rechtsorde en de Verenigde Naties, over mensenrechten en humanitaire interventies en over globalisering en kosmopolitisme.
    Immanuel Kant Thomas Mertens Edwin van Elden
    Immanuel Kant was an 18th century philosopher from K nigsberg, Prussia now Kaliningrad, Russia He s regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe of the late Enlightenment His most important work is The Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation of reason itself It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics epistemology, highlights his own contribution to these areas Other main works of his maturity are The Critique of Practical Reason, which is about ethics, The Critique of Judgment, about esthetics teleology.Pursuing metaphysics involves asking questions about the ultimate nature of reality Kant suggested that metaphysics can be reformed thru epistemology He suggested that by understanding the sources limits of human knowledge we can ask fruitful metaphysical questions He asked if an object can be known to have certain properties prior to the experience of that object He concluded that all objects that the mind can think about must conform to its manner of thought Therefore if the mind can think only in terms of causality which he concluded that it does then we can know prior to experiencing them that all objects we experience must either be a cause or an effect However, it follows from this that it s possible that there are objects of such a nature that the mind cannot think of them, so the principle of causality, for instance, cannot be applied outside experience hence we cannot know, for example, whether the world always existed or if it had a cause So the grand questions of speculative metaphysics are off limits, but the sciences are firmly grounded in laws of the mind Kant believed himself to be creating a compromise between the empiricists the rationalists The empiricists believed that knowledge is acquired thru experience alone, but the rationalists maintained that such knowledge is open to Cartesian doubt and that reason alone provides us with knowledge Kant argues, however, that using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions, while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason Kant s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime, moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists empiricists The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer saw themselves as correcting and expanding Kant s system, thus bringing about various forms of German Idealism Kant continues to be a major influence on philosophy to this day, influencing both Analytic and Continental philosophy.


    Commentaires:

    Ibrahim Saad
    - " إن حالة السلام بين أناس يعيشون جنباً إلى جنب ليست حالة طبيعية ، إذ أن الحالة الطبيعية أدنى إلى أن تكون حالة حرب . وهي وإن لم تكن دائماً حرباً معلنة . إلا أنها على الأقل منطوية على تهديد دائم بالعدوان . وإذاً فينبغي " إقرار " حالة السلام ، ذلك أن الكف عن الحرب ليس بضمان للسلام وإ [...]

    Trevor
    I'm only half way through, but a terribly interesting little book. Kant essentially treats nations as persons and then applies his categorical imperitive, particularly its second formation from the Groundwork - treat people as ends, never means - as the basis for creating perpetual peace. Very interesting point he makes about democracies being despotic by definition - but I think this is avoided by the notion of separation of powers. All the same, he has me thinking about this. His point being t [...]

    Yamen Ourabi
    أهم النقاط في فكر كانط في هذا الكتاب : 1- حل الجيوش في العالم 2- إقامة نظام جمهوري 3- إنشاء اتحاد بين دول العالم يقوم على اقامة حلف، الهدف منه انهاء الحروب ليعم السلام الدائم. 4- عدم تدخل دولة ما في دولة أخرى ولو رأت أن لديها نظاماً استبدادياً، فوجود دولة تحت حكم استبدادي أخف وطأة م [...]

    Elie Feng
    Edited: An ambitious essay, self-indulgently ambitious. Many political theorists use this essay to analyze the Cold War and consider the EU or UN as a product much like Kantian federation of states, which I think is ridiculous considering that Kant was writing in the 1790s and addressing 18th century European warfare, but later in the 19th and 20th century the purposes and scales of war changed radically. However, even if we only situate Kant's theory in his age, I still don't think his blueprin [...]

    Hoda Elsayed
    تقول السياسة:كن مستبصرًا كالثعابينوتضيف الأخلاق شرطًا مقيدًا:وكن بسيطًا كالحمائم

    Fatima Abbas
    هذا الكتاب عن "مشروع السلام" الدائم وثيق الصلة بمختلف مؤلفات "كانط" في الفلسفة النقدية، فبعد أن نشر الفيلسوف كتابه "نقد العقل الخالص" مبيناً فيه القيمة النسبية للمبادئ العقلية وراسماً للفلاسفة حدود المعرفة النظرية، ألف كتابين آخرين جليلين: "نقد العقل العملي"، و"نقد ملكة الحكم [...]

    Mohamed Omran
    قسّم كانط الكتاب إلى 4 أجزاء - الجزء الأول : المواد التمهيدية لتحقيق السلام الدائم بين الدول وفي هذا القسم 6 مواد أو شروط (سلبية) للسلم والجزء الثاني فيه المواد النهائية لتحقيق السلام الدائم وهنا 3 مواد : 1 - يجب أن يكون دستور المدينة في كل دولة دستوراً جمهورياً " وهنا يقول إذا كا [...]

    Mohammed Al-Garawi
    Before reading this, keep in mind that what you're holding in your hands is the starting point and foundation of contemporary liberal thought. This book is Kants peace program proposition, where he lists the 9 pillars for attaining perpetual peace:1) "No secret treaty of peace shall be held valid in which there is tacitly reserved matter for a future war"2) "No independent states, large or small, shall come under the dominion of another state by inheritance, exchange, purchase, or donation"3) "S [...]

    Ottavia
    "C'è un detto, dal suono certo un po' fanfaronesco, che ormai circola come proverbio, e che tuttavia è vero: fiat iustitia, pereat mundus, ed è un eccellente principio del diritto, che elimina tutte le strade storte previste dall'inganno e dalla violenza; a patto però che non venga frainteso, cioè come permesso di utilizzare il proprio diritto con la massima severità, e che venga invece inteso come obbligo dei potenti di non rifiutare, o di non limitare, a nessuno il suo diritto a causa di [...]

    Víctor Galán
    Cuando uno se pone a leer a Kant, lo hace con el respeto que le causa saber que se encuentra ante uno de los mayores eruditos de su tiempo. Un tipo que invirtió literalmente toda su vida a la razón, al conocimiento y a explorar los límites tanto de uno como del otro.Por eso, decidí empezar por algo "sencillo", alejado de sus trabajos críticos, que además trataba de un tema poco habitual en Kant, sumado a su brevedad que hacían de este un producto difícilmente rechazable. "Sobre la paz pe [...]

    Gregory Ambrose
    In Perpetual Peace, Kant offers a very practical means of establishing means of perpetual peace between nations, such as the abolishment of standing armies. Kant's style of writing is nothing short of eloquent, and his logic is bulletproof. Unfortunately, he fails to account for the depravity of man, making his ideas less practical than they appear to be. Ironically, it is our need for peace that does not allow us to have it. Nevertheless, Kant's Perpetual Peace is an amazing piece of philosophy [...]

    حسنعدس
    تاني اكتر كتاب بعد معالم علي الطريق حرق دمي السنه دي . تسقيفة امال

    Harry Doble
    It is somewhat quaint to think that one could spend their time writing out a sketch of what it would take for all of the countries of the world to exist in a perpetual state of peace. I'm just so moulded by a culture of damage control and a certainty there is a coming apocalypse by now. But here we are. Kant's little essay about perpetual peace is fascinating. The strong points are that it really spells out much of the theory that underpins the machinations of government as we understand it in d [...]

    Tim
    Es täte einigen Völker- und Staatenbundgegnern nur gut, sich kurz der Schrift Kants von 1795 zu widmen. Klar zu sehen wäre, dass sich in den nun 222 Jahren seit der Veröffentlichung seines Plädoyers für den internationalen Frieden nur wenig bis gar nichts an der menschlichen Einstellung gegenüber Staatskonflikten geändert hat. Zu 'Fremdlingen' (S. 21):Es ist kein Gastrecht, worauf dieser Anspruch machen kann, sondern ein Besuchsrecht, welches allen Menschen zusteht, sich zur Gesellschaft [...]

    بسام عبد العزيز
    إنها يوتوبيا أخرى يحاول أن يضعها كانط لكن الفارق الوحيد أن كانط يحاول أن يجعلها واقعية قدر الإمكانو لكن حتى مع محاولة كانط الابتعاد عن المثاليات فإن القوانين التي اقترحها كانط من المستحيل فعليا تطبيقهاففي قوانينه التمهيدية نجد كانط يطالب بعدم وجود جيوش لدي الدول وهذا طبيعي [...]

    Magdalena
    Kan'ts views on what constitutes worldwide perpetual peace and what States need in order to achieve it. A short read that takes a lot of time to analyze. Kant tends to be idealistic at times, but manages to root his ideas in the principles of freedom (or liberty? I wouldn't know what's the better translation, read it in Spanish), dependence, and equality. The only form of government that could possibly lead to perpetual peace is a republic. Kant believes that it is Nature's will that humanity co [...]

    Baylee
    La libertà, considerata innata, inscindibilmente legata all’umanità dell’uomo, e inalienabile – proprio come entro le Dichiarazioni rivoluzionarie (americana e francese) dei diritti che precedono i singoli dettati costituzionali –, è definita qui «facoltà di non obbedire ad altra legge se non a quella a cui avrei potuto dare il mio consenso». E' incredibile vedere come gli Stati siano andati nella direzione auspicata nel 1795 da Kant. Siamo ancora molto lontani dalla pace perpetua [...]

    Fady Fathy
    الملحقين والتذييلين اصابوني بحالة انهطال صعبة جداً ، ممكن انا قررت اني اكروتهم ، بس قبل ما ابداً في الملحق الاول مليت الكتاب ورميته كتير قبل ما ارجعله تاني ، لغة الكتاب فلسفية صعبة عايزة تفكير كتير وممكن متفهمش برضو عادي نص الكتاب كده وجمله طويلة جداً وبتتوه وزاد الطينة بلة [...]

    Tyler
    This is a surprisingly high rating that I am giving Kant considering I don't really like a lot of his other philosophy. A lot of his ideas are pretty interesting, but I think history kind of shows that some are wrong. Mainly that democratic republics would find it in the interest to not go to war. This, I think, has been shown to be false when examining the invasion of Iraq. It's not just the United States I am talking about, but all the countries that helped with the surge. Perhaps France, Ital [...]

    Joe Iacovino
    Surprisingly untouched by time. A good argument for small government but does ignore that local majorities can be dead wrong when it comes to their neighbors well-being. That aside, strong points and clear, rational thinking is prevalent. I experienced this on audiobook after Thoreau's "On Civil Disobedience" and the whole time I felt like this was what Thoreau was trying to be, but fell flat. I especially enjoyed the idea of arguments being forced into the public eye as a test for their merit b [...]

    Bola Shokry
    السلام الابدي أو حسب ترجمة أمين عثمان: مشروع السلام الدائم. كتاب صغير,موضوعه سياسي فلسفي, عن الخطوات اللازم اتباعها -حسب كانط- لتحقيق السلام الدائم بين الدول.افكار الكتاب حلوة واسهل شوية من "نقد العقل العملي" بتاع كانط اللي حاولت اقراه ومفهمتش منه حاجة, لكنه مازال مش سهل ومحتا [...]

    Antonio Kowatsch
    I decided to read this book in German since I wanted to fully immerse myself in the original text (der Urtext). Well, it wasn't an easy read. I can say that much. As a matter of fact I'd wager that this book is more difficult to read than Kant's older works like "Critique of judgment" (aka "Kritik der Urteilskraft"). But who knows, maybe the English translation is easier to get into.The verbiage was quite flowery and included many Latin phrases.My Latin is a little bit rusty but I managed just f [...]

    Elisa
    Un libro molto impegnativo e complesso non è di facile comprensione.

    ibrahim elsadony
    فيه بعض الأفكار والتفسيرات الجيدة, إن اقتصت من السياق وتم التعامل معها وحدها, أما المنظومة العامة لفكر كانت فى هذا الكاتب متفائلة فانتازية قد لا يمكننا التدليل على عدم صحتها أو استحالة وقوعها, ولكن واقع البشرية المأساوى منذ بدء الخليقة يرجح الاحتمالية القائلة إنه حدوث شئ كه [...]

    Juan Pablo
    Sobre la paz perpetua"Esta inscripción satírica que un hostelero holandés había puesto en la muestra de su casa, debajo de una pintura que representaba un cementerio" así, con un tono irónico, parte esta obra de Kant, que tiene un objetivo bastante ambicioso: plantear las condiciones necesarias para lograr la paz (a su juicio, decir "paz perpetua" es un pleonasmo: la paz siepre es perpetua, sino es sólo un armisticio). Agunas consideraciones básicas están expuestas como "artículos pree [...]

    Hesham
    بالرغم من اختلافى مع اغلب المحتوى لكن الكتاب عظيم:بالنسبة للوقت المكتوب فيه (القرن ال18), الكتاب عظيم و الافكار المطروحة فيه تعتبر بالنسبة لوقتها عبقرية. ده ممكن يفسر ازاى كان ليه أثر على ناس زى هيجل و انجلز. (و أثر عليهم طبعا بأفكار تانية بجانب اللى مطروحة فى الكتاب ده)الكتاب ب [...]

    Vesa Lehto
    I think Kant was on the money on pretty much everything:Threat of war protects people from despotism. Simply because unpopular totalitarian state is incredibly inefficient. To a degree that it halts any possible war preparations. But if your nation can overpower anything else, then different political entities will just try to grab the loot as they don't have to be afraid of anything external. This will drift towards "despotism" until such superpower status is nullified. This explains the shit-s [...]

    Gift
    Mein erster Eindruck? Lange Schachtelsätze, ständig beigefügte Klammern und tausende Fußnoten.Kurz zusammengefasst- eine philosophische Traumlektüre, eine uneingeschränkte soziologische Zitierquelle und ein Kopfschütteln für viele Politologen. Auch ich habe mich gefragt- muss ich nach vier Jahren meines Intensivstudiums so etwas tatsächlich lesen? Wo ist bitte der Mehrwert?Das Problem ähnlicher klassischen Texten ist (und jetzt kommt die Überraschung!), dass sie einfach zu alt sind. K [...]

    Daniel Threlfall
    This is the first start-to-finish Kant book that I've read. [Hangs head in shame]It was amazing. Perpetual peace, Kant argues, is probably possible as long as we view the world in the right way, arrange ourselves in the correct relationships, and don't blow it. That's Kant's main point, but my viewpoint differs. Enduring world peace, as history indicates, mankind proves, and Scripture suggests, is elusive. When it comes down to Kant's incisive style, organized argument, and lucid explanation, I [...]

    Francisco Luis Benítez
    Relectura obligada de un ensayo capital del idealismo internacionalista, y de rabiosa actualidad a pesar de sus más de 200 años de existencia. No es sólo por su visión futurista de un sistema de gobernanza mundial que haga de La Paz un modelo de exportación de la democracia, si no de su capacidad para ir más allá del derecho internacional y del derecho de Estado. Sin duda una reflexión necesaria para establecer un nuevo modelo de sociedad internacional desde lo público y lo estatal, en [...]

    • [PDF] Download ↠ Naar de eeuwige vrede | by ↠ Immanuel Kant Thomas Mertens Edwin van Elden
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      Posted by:Immanuel Kant Thomas Mertens Edwin van Elden
      Published :2018-05-06T21:21:20+00:00